HasteIIoy® X is suitable for manufacturing combustion chamber components and other high-temperature components of aero engines. It can be used under 900℃ for a long time, and the working temperature can reach 1080℃ in a short time.

Basic description of Hastelloy X Powder

Hastelloy X powder is a nickel-based superalloy known for its exceptional strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures up to 2200°F (1200°C). This alloy is designed explicitly for powder metallurgy and additive manufacturing processes, offering a fine particle size that ensures high packing density and uniformity in the sintered parts. Hastelloy X is characterized by its durability in hot-section gas turbine components, making it a preferred material for aerospace and industrial applications where high-temperature strength is critical.

Hastelloy X Similar grades

While Hastelloy X is distinguished by its high-temperature capabilities, there are other alloys with somewhat similar properties used in demanding environments:

  • Hastelloy C-276: Known for its outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide range of aggressive media, C-276 is another nickel-based superalloy focusing on chemical resistance rather than high-temperature performance.

  • Inconel 718: A nickel-chromium alloy famous for its high yield, tensile, and creep-rupture properties at high temperatures, making it ideal for aerospace and energy applications.

  • Rene 41: A nickel-based superalloy with excellent high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance, commonly used in gas turbine engines and other high-temperature aerospace applications.

  • Waspaloy: Another nickel-based superalloy known for its high strength at temperatures up to 1600°F (870°C) and good oxidation resistance, suitable for turbine blades and other aerospace engine components.


Hastelloy X powder, renowned for its excellent high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance, is widely used in industries that operate under severe thermal conditions. Its versatility makes it a preferred choice for a variety of challenging applications. Here’s a detailed look at specific applications of Hastelloy X:

1. Aerospace: Hastelloy X is extensively used in the aerospace industry for manufacturing gas turbine engine components, including combustion chambers, turbine blades, and afterburner parts. Its ability to withstand high temperatures and resist oxidation ensures reliability and performance in demanding aerospace environments.

2. Industrial Gas Turbines: Similar to its applications in aerospace, Hastelloy X is utilized for high-temperature components in industrial gas turbines. Parts such as turbine blades, vanes, and combustors benefit from the alloy’s thermal stability and resistance to high-temperature corrosion.

3. Heat-Treating Equipment: The alloy is used in furnaces and heat-treating equipment components, such as baffles, retorts, and conveyor belts. Hastelloy X’s resistance to oxidation and carburization at high temperatures makes it ideal for prolonged service in heat-treatment applications.


4. Petrochemical Processing: In petrochemical plants, Hastelloy X is employed in components exposed to high temperatures and corrosive gases, including crackers and heaters. Its high-temperature performance is crucial for ensuring the integrity and efficiency of petrochemical processing operations.

5. Power Generation: Hastelloy X finds applications in power generation, particularly in coal gasification and biomass conversion processes, where materials are required to perform reliably at high temperatures and in corrosive environments.

6. Automotive: In high-performance automotive applications, Hastelloy X is used for exhaust components and turbocharger systems, where its high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance improve durability and engine performance.

Composition and Properties

Hastelloy X is a nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum alloy that offers an exceptional combination of oxidation resistance, high-temperature strength, and fabricability. Its unique properties make it suitable for demanding environments, especially high temperatures.


The nominal chemical composition of Hastelloy X includes:

  • Nickel (Ni): Base, providing overall corrosion resistance and high-temperature strength.

  • Chromium (Cr): 20.5-23%, contributing significantly to oxidation resistance and helping form a protective oxide layer on the material's surface.

  • Iron (Fe): 17-20%, enhancing the alloy's structural stability.

  • Molybdenum (Mo): 8-10%, increasing the alloy's strength and resistance to corrosion in reducing environments.

  • Cobalt (Co): Up to 2.5%, often added to improve high-temperature stability.

  • Manganese (Mn): Up to 1%, used to enhance the alloy's mechanical properties.

  • Silicon (Si): Up to 1% helps refine the grain structure and improve-improve oxidation resistance.

  • Carbon (C): 0.05-0.15% affects the alloy's strength and stability at high temperatures.


This composition bestows Hastelloy X with a set of distinct properties suitable for challenging applications:

  • Exceptional High-Temperature Strength: It maintains structural integrity and mechanical properties at temperatures up to 2200°F (1200°C), making it ideal for aerospace and industrial gas turbine applications.

  • Outstanding Oxidation Resistance: Chromium and silicon contribute to its excellent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures, which is essential for components exposed to hot environments.

  • Good Corrosion Resistance: Offers resistance to various chemical environments, including those with reducing agents, thanks to the presence of molybdenum and nickel.

  • Fabricability: Despite its high-temperature capabilities, Hastelloy X can be welded, machined, and formed using standard techniques, allowing versatility in manufacturing complex components.

Applications Stemming from Composition and Properties:

Given its resistance to oxidation and high-temperature strength, Hastelloy X is widely utilized in components for gas turbine engines, industrial furnaces, and chemical processing equipment. Its ability to withstand aggressive and high-temperature environments makes it a critical material for parts such as combustion chambers and turbine blades in the aerospace industry. Additionally, its fabricability ensures that complex components can be manufactured efficiently, making Hastelloy X a preferred choice for applications that demand both performance and durability under extreme conditions.

Hastelloy X Powder Characteristics

The performance of Hastelloy X in manufacturing processes, particularly those involving powder metallurgy techniques such as additive manufacturing (3D printing), metal injection molding (MIM), and powder compression molding (PCM), is significantly influenced by the specific characteristics of its powder form. These characteristics ensure that the manufacturing process yields parts with optimal mechanical properties and high-quality surface finishes.

Yield Strength:

Yield strength measures the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. Hastelloy X parts typically exhibit a yield strength of 40,000 to 50,000 psi. It indicates the material's ability to withstand significant stress before experiencing permanent deformation, making it suitable for high-stress applications, especially at elevated temperatures.

Tensile Strength:

Tensile strength represents the maximum stress a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. Parts made from Hastelloy X powder can achieve tensile strengths of approximately 95,000 to 120,000 psi. This high tensile strength is crucial for applications where components are subjected to high tensile loads, ensuring durability and performance.


Elongation measures the flexibility of a material or how much it can stretch before it breaks. Manufactured parts from Hastelloy X typically show an elongation range of 30% to 50%, indicating good elasticity. It allows components to undergo significant deformation before failure, which is advantageous in applications requiring materials that can absorb significant energy or withstand impact.


Hastelloy X Physical Properties

The physical properties of Hastelloy X powder are pivotal for its application in advanced manufacturing processes. These properties not only influence the behavior of the powder during processing but also significantly impact the performance of the final parts in their operational environments.


Hastelloy X has a density of approximately 8.3 g/cm³. This high density reflects the material's compact atomic structure, contributing to the overall strength and durability of parts manufactured from this alloy. Achieving near-full density in parts is essential for applications requiring high mechanical integrity and resistance to high-temperature environments.


Manufactured parts from Hastelloy X powder can achieve hardness levels of about 200 to 240 HB (Brinell Hardness). This hardness balances strength and ductility, making it suitable for components exposed to high temperatures and harsh conditions where wear resistance and longevity are critical.

Specific Surface Area:

A higher specific surface area of the powder enhances its reactivity and sinterability, which is crucial for processes like Metal Injection Molding (MIM) and additive manufacturing. Hastelloy X powder is engineered to have an appropriate specific surface area, facilitating the sintering process and producing parts with high mechanical properties and minimal porosity.


The sphericity of Hastelloy X powder affects its flowability and packing density, essential factors for manufacturing accuracy and repeatability. High sphericity ensures uniform flow and layering in additive manufacturing processes, contributing to the final parts' dimensional accuracy and surface finish.

Bulk Density:

The bulk density of the powder influences the efficiency of powder handling and the quality of the final part. Hastelloy X powder features an optimized bulk density that facilitates easy handling and efficient compaction, essential for achieving uniform part density and strength.

Hall Flow Rate:

This property measures the powder's ability to flow through an orifice, affecting the precision of powder-based manufacturing processes. Hastelloy X powder exhibits excellent flow characteristics, enabling accurate and consistent part fabrication.

Melting Point:

Hastelloy X has a melting point suitable for its specific manufacturing processes, typically around 1355°C (2471°F). This melting point ensures the alloy's stability and performance during high-temperature applications.

Relative Density:

After processing, the relative density of parts can reach near theoretical density, which is crucial for achieving optimal mechanical strength and minimizing porosity, thereby enhancing the component's performance in demanding environments.

Recommended Layer Thickness:

For additive manufacturing processes, optimizing the layer thickness is vital to efficiently balancing resolution with build time. Hastelloy X powder is suitable for a recommended layer thickness that ensures fine detail without compromising structural integrity.

Thermal Expansion Coefficient:

The alloy exhibits a thermal expansion coefficient that ensures compatibility with other materials in composite structures, maintaining dimensional stability across a wide temperature range.

Thermal Conductivity:

Its thermal conductivity allows for efficient heat dissipation, essential for components that experience high thermal loads during operation.

Technical Standard:

Hastelloy X powder and parts manufactured from it adhere to rigorous technical standards, ensuring reliability, quality, and compatibility with international manufacturing requirements.

Manufacturing Techniques

Hastelloy X's unique blend of high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance makes it suitable for various manufacturing processes. Each technique has distinct advantages and challenges, which can help optimize manufacturing outcomes. This section explores the suitable manufacturing processes for Hastelloy X, compares outcomes across different methods, and discusses common issues and solutions.

1. Which manufacturing processes are Hastelloy X suitable for?

  • 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing): Hastelloy X is particularly well-suited for laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), enabling the creation of complex components with precise geometries and minimal waste. These methods are ideal for aerospace and industrial applications requiring parts that can withstand high temperatures.

  • Metal Injection Molding (MIM): This method is used for high-volume production of small to medium-sized parts with complex shapes. MIM is cost-effective and provides excellent material properties and surface finish, leveraging Hastelloy X's high-temperature capabilities.

  • Powder Compression Molding (PCM): Suitable for more significant components, PCM uses Hastelloy X powder to produce parts with uniform material properties and significant detail, which is essential for high-temperature applications.

  • Vacuum Casting: While less common for metals like Hastelloy X, vacuum casting can be utilized for specific applications, particularly for prototypes or when precise control over material properties is less critical.

  • Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP): HIP can significantly improve the properties of parts made from Hastelloy X powder, especially those manufactured through additive manufacturing or PCM, by reducing porosity and enhancing density.

  • CNC Machining: Hastelloy X can be machined into final or semi-final parts. CNC machining is often used to achieve precise dimensions and delicate features on components initially formed by other methods.

2. Comparison of parts produced by these manufacturing processes:

  • Surface Roughness: Additive manufacturing typically produces parts with higher surface roughness compared to MIM or CNC machining, necessitating post-processing to achieve the desired finish.

  • Tolerances: CNC machining and MIM usually offer tighter tolerances than additive manufacturing or PCM, which might require additional machining or finishing to meet specific dimensional requirements.

  • Internal Defects: Additive manufacturing and PCM can introduce internal porosity or defects not present in parts produced through MIM or CNC machining. HIP can mitigate these issues in additive manufactured parts.

  • Mechanical Properties: While additive manufacturing can produce parts with comparable mechanical properties to traditional methods, specific heat treatments or HIP might be necessary to optimize the performance of Hastelloy X components.

  • Compactness: MIM and CNC machining generally yield higher-density parts and fewer defects, which is crucial for applications requiring optimal material properties.

3. Normal issues and solutions in these manufacturing processes:

  • Surface Treatment: Post-processing techniques such as mechanical polishing, electro-polishing, or chemical etching are often required to improve surface finish, especially for additive manufactured parts.

  • Heat Treatment: Specific heat treatments can enhance the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of Hastelloy X parts, tailored to the requirements of the final application.

  • Tolerance Achievement: Precision machining or grinding may be necessary to achieve tight tolerances on additive manufacturing or PCM parts.

  • Deformation Problems: Components are susceptible to deformation during processing, which can be countered with careful design, support strategies in additive manufacturing, or subsequent straightening processes.

  • Cracking Problems: Minimizing residual stresses through proper heat treatment and employing gradual cooling rates can help prevent cracking in Hastelloy X components.

  • Detection Methods: Non-destructive testing methods, such as X-ray tomography or ultrasonic testing, are crucial for identifying internal defects or porosity within Hastelloy X parts.

Manufacturing With Hastelloy X

Nickel-based high-temperature alloys are usually used for corrosion resistance, high-temperature resistance, and other extreme working conditions, such as impellers, pump valves, auto parts, etc. Neway has a variety of processing techniques for manufacturing nickel-based high-temperature alloy parts and solving their problems, such as deformation, cracking, and porosity.

Superalloy parts manufacturing:

Metal injection molding (MIM)

Powder compression molding (PCM)

3D printing

Vacuum casting

Hot isostatic pressing (HIP)

CNC machining

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